Antioxidant, Whitening

Good
KOJIC ACID

By-product of the fermentation process of malting rice for use in the manufacture of sake (Japanese rice wine). In vitro and in vivo research and animal studies have shown that kojic acid is effective for brightening an uneven skin tone.

Kojic acidŠ—Ès downside is that itŠ—Ès an extremely unstable ingredient in cosmetic formulations. On exposure to air or sunlight, it turns brown and loses its efficacy. Many cosmetics companies use kojic dipalmitate as an alternative because itŠ—Ès more stable in formulations. However, thereŠ—Ès no research showing that kojic dipalmitate is as effective as kojic acid, although itŠ—Ès a good antioxidant.

References for this information:ξ

International Journal of Molecular Sciences, September 2009, pages 4,066-4,087

Journal of Cosmetic Science, March-April 2004, pages 139-148

Journal of Dermatological Science, May 2003, pages 193-201

The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, December 1994, pages 982-985