Maltol is a naturally occurring organic compound that is used primarily as a flavor enhancer. It is found in the bark of larch tree, in pine needles, and in roasted malt (from which it gets its name). It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in hot water, chloroform, and other polar solvents. Because it has the odor of cotton candy and caramel, maltol is used to impart a sweet aroma to fragrances. Maltol's sweetness adds to the odor of freshly baked bread, and is used as a flavor enhancer (INS Number 636) in breads and cakes. It is not registered as a food additive in the EU and thus has no E-number.[1] Instead, maltol is registered as a flavor component in the EU.[2]

Maltol, like related 3-hydroxy-4-pyrones such as kojic acid, binds to hard metal centers such as Fe3+, Ga3+, Al3+, and VO2+.[3] Related to this property, maltol has been reported to greatly increase aluminum uptake in the body[4] and to increase the oral bioavailability of gallium[5] and iron.