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Ingredient
Absorbent,  Scrub Agent,  Texture Enhancer,  Viscosity Control, 

Alumina

Good

Naturally occurring mineral used as an abrasive, a thickening agent, and an absorbent in cosmetics.

Texture Enhancer,  Viscosity Control,  Pigment, 

Aluminum Stearate

Good

Aluminum salt of stearic acid that functions as a thickening agent and helps stabilize products.

Texture Enhancer,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Butylene Glycol

Good

Commonly-used ingredient that has multiple functions in cosmetics, including as a texture enhancer. It’s similar to propylene glycol, but has a lighter texture.

Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Texture Enhancer, 

C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate

Good

Synthetic ingredient used as an emollient and texture enhancing agent in cosmetics. This common ingredient is soluble in oil and oil-like ingredients, and can impart a lightly conditioning, silky finish to products. Its excellent solubility is one of the main reasons its used in so many sunscreens, as it helps keep the active ingredients dispersed throughout the formula.

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Texture Enhancer,  Fragrance, 

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride

Best

Derived from coconut oil and glycerin, itŠ—Ès considered an excellent emollient and skin-replenishing ingredient. ItŠ—Ès included in cosmetics due to its mix of fatty acids that skin can use to replenish its surface and resist moisture loss. Caprylic/capric triglyceride can also function as a thickener, but its chief job is to moisturize and replenish skin. This ingredientŠ—Ès value for skin is made greater by the fact that itŠ—Ès considered gentle.Reference for this information:Food and Chemical Toxicology, January 2000, issue 1, pages 79-98

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Preservative,  Moisturizer, 

Caprylyl Glycol

Good

Skin and hair conditioning agent that may be plant-derived or synthetic. Often used as part of a preservative blend in cosmetics.

Plant Extract,  Skin-Replenishing, 

Ceramide Ng

Best

Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Texture Enhancer,  Viscosity Control,  Surfactant, 

Cetearyl Alcohol

Good

Fatty alcohol that is a mixture of gentle cetyl and stearyl alcohols. ItŠ—Ès used as an emollient, texture enhancer, foam stabilizer, and carrying agent for other ingredients. Can be derived naturally, as in coconut fatty alcohol, or made synthetically. It is almost always combined with similar-feeling ingredients to create a productŠ—Ès texture and influence its slip when applied to skin.Cosmetic products labeled "alcohol free" are allowed to contain cetearyl alcohol, whose effects are quite different from skin-aggravating forms of alcohol. We repeat: fatty alcohols like cetearyl alcohol do not pose a risk of sensitizing skin.Reference for this information:FDA Labeling Claims, 2014http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/cetyl-alcohol

Preservative, 

Chlorphenesin

Good

Type of alcohol used as a preservative in cosmetics.

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Moisturizer,  Anti, 

Cucumis Sativus

Good

Emollient,  Silicone, 

Dimethicone

Good

A type of silicone, dimethicone is one of the most frequently used emollient ingredients in moisturizers due to its gentleness and effectiveness. Dimethicone is considered a synthetic ingredient, even though itŠ—Ès derived from natural silicon.

Preservative,  Moisturizer,  Miscellaneous, 

Ethylhexylglycerin

Good

A synthetic skin-softening agent also used as a preservative, a carrier, or suspending agent for other preservatives such as phenoxyethanol.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycerin

Best

Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is a humectant thatŠ—Ès present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured, which is usually the case with modern-day skincare products.Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. ItŠ—Ès one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skinŠ—Ès moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.Some people wonder whether using products with glycerin takes too much water from skin when there isnŠ—Èt enough humidity in the air. This can occur with pure glycerin (100% concentrationŠ—”an amount thatŠ—Ès never used in skincare products). Any humectant (including glycerin) used in pure form can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers when the climate is too arid (low humidity). For this reason, glycerin and humectants are typically used in concentrations of 5% or less and always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. In fact, glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.References for this information:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublicationBritish Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Viscosity Control, 

Glycine Soja Sterols

Best

Sterol derived from the Glycine soja (soy) plant. A sterol is a solid complex alcohol derived from animals and plants. Despite the alcohol origin, sterols are not drying on skin; rather, they serve to lubricate and have an emollient texture.

Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Skin-Restoring, 

Hydrogenated Lecithin

Best

Hydrogenated form of the skin-restoring ingredient lecithin. It may be derived from animals or plants (egg yolk is a source) or manufactured synthetically.

Emollient,  Synthetic Ester, 

Isononyl Isononanoate

Good

Synthetic ester that functions as an emollient skin-softening agent. Occurs naturally in cocoa oil and lavender oil. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel has determined that isononyl isononanoate is safe in its current use and concentration in cosmetic products.

Skin-Restoring, 

Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-12

Best

Blend of the fatty acid palmitic acid with several amino acids, including glycine, histidine, and lysine, Also known as pal-KTTKS and formerly under the catchall term palmitoyl oligopeptide. Theoretically, many peptides have skin-restoring ability and this is one of the newer synthetic options that is believed to help skin look and act younger.

Cleansing Agent,  Emulsifier,  Moisturizer,  Surfactant,  Solvent, 

PEG-10 Phytosterol

Good

A synthetic or soy-derived (PaulaŠ—Ès Choice Skincare uses the latter) ingredient used in cosmetics as a cleansing agent and emulsifier. As a class of ingredients, soy-based phytosterols are generally recognized as safe for use in cosmetic products.

Texture Enhancer,  Moisturizer, 

Pentylene Glycol

Good

A synthetic skin-replenishing agent and solvent.

Preservative, 

Phenoxyethanol

Good

Common cosmetics preservative that's considered one of the least sensitizing for use in formulations. It does not release formaldehyde. Phenoxyethanol is approved worldwide (including in Japan and in the EU) for use in all types of water-based cosmetics, up to a 1% concentration.

Emulsifier,  Uncategorized, 

Polyhydroxystearic Acid

Good

Synthetic polymer related to stearic acid that functions as a suspending agent.

Cleansing Agent,  Emulsifier,  Surfactant, 

Polysorbate 20

Good

Emollient,  Plant Extract, 

Prunus Armeniaca

Good

Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer, 

Sodium Hyaluronate

Best

Salt form of skin-replenishing ingredient hyaluronic acid; considered more effective for skin than pure hyaluronic acid due to its greater compatibility. References for this information:

Emulsifier,  Thickeners/Emulsifier, 

Sorbitan Stearate

Good

Emulsifier used to thicken and stabilize cosmetics formulations.

Antioxidant, 

Superoxide Dismutase

Best

Enzyme considered a potent antioxidant in humans.

Antioxidant,  Vitamin, 

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate

Best

Stable form of vitamin C that is considered an analogue of L-ascorbic acid. Unlike pure vitamin C (ascorbic acid), tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate is lipid (fat) soluble.Some researchers believe this form of vitamin C has a greater affinity for skin because its fatty acid component helps aid penetration. It pairs well with other forms of vitamin C and retinol for enhanced effectiveness.References for this information:Clinics in Plastic Surgery, July 2016, page 601Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Supplement, May 2014, pages AB26Dermatologic Surgery, March 2002, pages 231-236

Coloring Agents/Pigment,  Sunscreen Active,  Thickeners/Emulsifier,  Pigment, 

Titanium Dioxide

Best

Inert earth mineral used as a thickening, whitening, lubricating, and sunscreen ingredient in cosmetics. It protects skin from UVA and UVB radiation and is considered to have no risk of skin sensitivity. Because of its gentleness, titanium dioxide is an excellent sunscreen active for use on sensitive, redness-prone skin. ItŠ—Ès also great for use around the eyes, as it is highly unlikely to cause stinging.Titanium dioxide is typically micronized and coated for use in cosmetics products. The micronizing makes this somewhat heavy-feeling ingredient easier to spread on skin, plus a bit more cosmetically elegant. Micronized titanium dioxide also is much more stable and can provide better sun protection than non-micronized titanium dioxide. Micronized titanium dioxide does not penetrate skin so thereŠ—Ès no need to be concerned about it getting into your body. Even when titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used, the molecular size of the substance used to coat the nanoparticles is large enough to prevent them from penetrating beyond the uppermost layers of skin. This means youŠ—Ère getting the sun protection titanium dioxide provides without any risk of it causing harm to skin or your body.The coating process improves application, enhances sun protection, and also prevents the titanium dioxide from interacting with other ingredients in the presence of sunlight, thus enhancing its stability. It not only makes this ingredient much more pleasant to use for sunscreen, but also improves efficacy and eliminates safety concerns. Common examples of ingredients used to coat titanium dioxide are alumina, dimethicone, silica, and trimethoxy capryl silane.Titanium dioxide as used in sunscreens is commonly modified with other ingredients to ensure efficacy and stability. Examples of what are known as surface modifier ingredients used for titanium dioxide include stearic acid, isostearic acid, polyhydroxystearic acid, and dimethicone/methicone copolymer.Some websites and doctors maintain that titanium dioxide is inferior to zinc oxide, another mineral sunscreen whose core characteristics are similar to those of titanium dioxide. The reality is titanium dioxide is a great broad-spectrum SPF ingredient and is widely used in all manner of sun-protection products. What gets confusing for some consumers is trying to decipher research that ranks sunscreen ingredients by a UV spectrum graph. By most standards, broad-spectrum coverage for any sunscreen ingredient is defined as one that surpasses 360 nanometers (abbreviated as Š—“nm,Š—

Antioxidant,  Vitamin,  Moisturizer, 

Tocopheryl Acetate

Best

Emollient,  Skin-Replenishing,  Thickeners/Emulsifier, 

Tribehenin

Good

Skin-softening agent thatŠ—Ès a mixture of glycerin and behenic acid. Also known as glyceryl tribehenate. May be synthetic or naturally-derived.

Antioxidant,  Skin-Soothing, 

Ubiquinone

Best

Also known as coenzyme Q10, it is a vitamin-like, fat-soluble substance naturally present in the body. Applied to skin, it can have antioxidant benefits due to its energizing effect on factors in skin that tend to slow down with age and cumulative sun exposure.ξ

Film-Forming/Holding Agent, 

Vp/Eicosene Copolymer

Good

Film-forming agent often used in water-resistant sunscreen products. It helps the sunscreen adhere better to skin and resist breaking down in water. It does not, however, last for hours, which is why you must reapply even water-resistant sunscreens at regular intervals.

Solvent,  Miscellaneous, 

Water

Good

Most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration in the formula. Despite claims of skinŠ—Ès need for hydration and claims regarding special types of water, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis. Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin with that of normal or oily skin do not find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them.

Antioxidant,  Coloring Agents/Pigment,  Skin-Soothing,  Sunscreen Active,  Thickeners/Emulsifier,  Astringent, 

Zinc Oxide

Best

Inert earth mineral used as a thickening, lubricating, and sunscreen active ingredient in cosmetics. Along with titanium dioxide, zinc oxide is considered to have no risk of skin sensitization. As a sunscreen, it is effective in providing protection against sunŠ—Ès UVA rays in addition to UVB rays. Zinc oxide is also sometimes used in makeup to impart opacity to products like foundations, particularly powder-based makeup.

Emulsifier,  Viscosity Control,  Solvent, 

Glyceryl Stearate & PEG-100 Stearate

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Viscosity Control,  Anti,  Solvent, 

Avena Sativa Peptide

Viscosity Control, 

Natural Xanthan Gum

A mineral-based sunscreen that replenishes dry, sensitive skin with smoothing hydration while protecting it against damaging UVA/UVB rays.
Diminishes the appearance of redness
Helps keep skin looking younger, longer
Creamy lotion texture
Use as the last step in your AM skincare routine
SKIN TYPES: Extra Sensitive Skin, Dry/Very Dry Skin
CONCERNS: Redness

Allergic ingredients not found