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Ingredient
Preservative,  Solvent, 

1, 2-Hexanediol

Good

A synthetic preservative and moisture-binding agent belonging to a class of agents known as higher molecular glycols. It is considered non-sensitizing.ξ

Exfoliant, 

Betaine Salicylate

Good

A fatty acid-type ingredient derived from plants. Beta-sitosterol occurs naturally in many fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. It is similar to cholesterol, which occurs naturally in skin. Applied to skin, it is considered a good moisturizing and skin-soothing ingredient.

Texture Enhancer,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Butylene Glycol

Good

Commonly-used ingredient that has multiple functions in cosmetics, including as a texture enhancer. It’s similar to propylene glycol, but has a lighter texture.

Texture Enhancer,  Fragrance,  Solvent, 

Ethyl Hexanediol

Average

A synthetic, viscous alcohol that functions as a solvent and can also be a fragrance ingredient. Considered safe for use in cosmetics in concentrations up to 5%. Ethyl hexanediol is most commonly used in haircare products and cleansers. Interestingly, higher amounts of this ingredients are sometimes used as an insect repellant.

Antioxidant,  Skin-Restoring,  Skin-Soothing,  Vitamin, 

Niacinamide

Best

Also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide is a very effective skin-restoring ingredient that offers multiple benefits for aging skin. Among these benefits is the ability to visibly improve the appearance of enlarged pores, uneven skin tone, fine lines, dullness, and a weakened skin surface. Niacinamide can also mitigate the damage environmental attack can cause, and is stable in the presence of heat and light.What about using vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and niacinamide in the same product or applied at the same time in separate products?ξYou might have read or heard that niacinamide and vitamin C shouldnŠ—Èt be used at the same time, whether found together in the same product or applied separately one after the other. Rest assured, this combination is fine and is in fact quite beneficial!ξThe research this misconception is based on was conducted in the 1960s; the forms of niacinamide and vitamin C used in this study were not stabilizedŠ—”although niacinamide itself is very stable. The base of the formula used in this study was also far different than todayŠ—Ès sophisticated skincare formulas. ξToday, cosmetic chemists know how to combine niacinamide and vitamin C in the ideal base formulas that enhance their compatibility.ξThe other common concern weŠ—Ève seen about combining these two ingredients has to do with the pH range. The concern is that the acidic environment ascorbic acid needs to be most effective will cause niacinamide will convert to nicotinic acid, a form that can be sensitizing, possibly inducing redness. Good news: This conversion process would only happen under conditions of the formula being exposed to very high heat for a long period of time. This would not apply to layering skincare products or to heat conditions that occur during manufacturing, transport, and storage of cosmetic products that contain niacinamide and ascorbic acid.

Plant Extract,  Skin-Soothing,  Astringent,  Anti, 

Salix Alba

Good

Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer, 

Sodium Hyaluronate

Best

Salt form of skin-replenishing ingredient hyaluronic acid; considered more effective for skin than pure hyaluronic acid due to its greater compatibility. References for this information:

Moisturizer,  Antistatic, 

D-Panthenol

Viscosity Control, 

Natural Xanthan Gum

4% natural BHA component gently eliminates blackheads and dead skin cells. It effectively penetrates into the skin and cleans up clogged pores. Also it helps skin to rebuild its moisture shield.

※ Must be used with sunscreen in daylight.
※ Do not use BHA products if you are allergic to aspirin.
※ Do not use BHA liquid with any other highly concentrated AHA, BHA or Vitamin C products.

Allergic ingredients not found