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Ingredient
Sensitizing, 

Acetic Acid

Poor

Acid found in vinegar, some fruits, and human sweat. It can be sensitizing to skin, though it also has disinfecting properties.

Skin-Soothing, 

Calcium Gluconate

Good

Calcium is an essential mineral for the body. A small amount of research shows calcium gluconate may be a good skin-soothing and restorative agent when applied topically.

Uncategorized,  Ph Adjusters, 

Citric Acid

Good

Extract derived from citrus fruits and used primarily in small amounts to adjust the pH of products to prevent them from being too alkaline.

Fragrance: Synthetic And Fragrant Plant Extract,  Plant Extract,  Fragrance,  Astringent,  Anti, 

Commiphora Myrrha

Poor

Exfoliant, 

Gluconolactone

Best

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycerin

Best

Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is a humectant thatŠ—Ès present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured, which is usually the case with modern-day skincare products.Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. ItŠ—Ès one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skinŠ—Ès moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.Some people wonder whether using products with glycerin takes too much water from skin when there isnŠ—Èt enough humidity in the air. This can occur with pure glycerin (100% concentrationŠ—”an amount thatŠ—Ès never used in skincare products). Any humectant (including glycerin) used in pure form can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers when the climate is too arid (low humidity). For this reason, glycerin and humectants are typically used in concentrations of 5% or less and always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. In fact, glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.References for this information:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublicationBritish Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365

Exfoliant,  Astringent,  Whitening, 

Lactic Acid

Best

Alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) extracted from milk, although most forms used in cosmetics are synthetic because that form is easier to formulate with and stabilize.

Antioxidant,  Exfoliant, 

Malic Acid

Good

An AHA ingredient derived from unripe fruit that also occurs naturally in the human body. It is used in cosmetics to adjust a product's pH. In foods, mailic acid is sometimes added to impart a sour or tart flavor.

Fragrance: Synthetic And Fragrant Plant Extract,  Plant Extract,  Sensitizing,  Fragrance,  Astringent, 

Myrtus Communis

Poor

Antioxidant,  Skin-Restoring,  Skin-Soothing,  Vitamin, 

Niacinamide

Best

Also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide is a very effective skin-restoring ingredient that offers multiple benefits for aging skin. Among these benefits is the ability to visibly improve the appearance of enlarged pores, uneven skin tone, fine lines, dullness, and a weakened skin surface. Niacinamide can also mitigate the damage environmental attack can cause, and is stable in the presence of heat and light.What about using vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and niacinamide in the same product or applied at the same time in separate products?ξYou might have read or heard that niacinamide and vitamin C shouldnŠ—Èt be used at the same time, whether found together in the same product or applied separately one after the other. Rest assured, this combination is fine and is in fact quite beneficial!ξThe research this misconception is based on was conducted in the 1960s; the forms of niacinamide and vitamin C used in this study were not stabilizedŠ—”although niacinamide itself is very stable. The base of the formula used in this study was also far different than todayŠ—Ès sophisticated skincare formulas. ξToday, cosmetic chemists know how to combine niacinamide and vitamin C in the ideal base formulas that enhance their compatibility.ξThe other common concern weŠ—Ève seen about combining these two ingredients has to do with the pH range. The concern is that the acidic environment ascorbic acid needs to be most effective will cause niacinamide will convert to nicotinic acid, a form that can be sensitizing, possibly inducing redness. Good news: This conversion process would only happen under conditions of the formula being exposed to very high heat for a long period of time. This would not apply to layering skincare products or to heat conditions that occur during manufacturing, transport, and storage of cosmetic products that contain niacinamide and ascorbic acid.

Antioxidant,  Plant Extract, 

Phytic Acid

Good

Component of plants that has antioxidant properties.

Preservative, 

Potassium Sorbate

Good

Used as a preservative, almost always used in conjunction with other preservatives.

Uncategorized,  Viscosity Control,  Solvent, 

Propanediol

Good

A glycol that can enhance the absorption of ingredients (such as salicylic acid) into the skin. Propanediol can be derived naturally (from corn) or synthetically. It has hydrating properties that may leave a smooth, dewy finish. Propanediol is a well-tolerated ingredient, not likely to cause sensitivity.References for this information:Cosmetics & Toiletries, May 2013, pages 81-86

Anti-Acne,  Exfoliant,  Skin-Soothing,  Whitening, 

Salicylic Acid

Best

Also called beta hydroxy acid (BHA), this multifunctional ingredient addresses many of the systemic causes of acne. Its primary benefit is as an exfoliant, helping shed dead skin in a way similar to how skin acts when we are younger. Because it has the ability to penetrate into the pore lining and exfoliate inside the pore as well as on the surface of skin, it is especially effective for reducing breakouts, including blackheads and whiteheads.In addition to these benefits, salicylic acid also has soothing properties to calm aggravated skin, can help minimize the appearance of an uneven skin tone, and has hydrating abilities that can result in smoother skin.References for this information:Clinical, Cosmetic, and Investigational Dermatology,ξAugust 2015, pages 455-461Clinical, Cosmetic, and Investigational Dermatology, November 2010, pages 135-142Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, September 2008, pages 170-176Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, April 2007, pages 651-663International Journal of Cosmetic Science, February 2000, pages 21-52Seminars in Dermatology, December 1990, pages 305-308.

Preservative, 

Sodium Benzoate

Good

Salt of benzoic acid used as a preservative in both cosmetics and food products. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has designated it a Š—“generally recognized as safeŠ—

Scrub Agent,  Viscosity Control, 

Sodium Chloride

Good

More popularly known as common table salt. Used primarily as a binding agent in skincare products and occasionally as an abrasive in scrub products.ξ

Sensitizing,  Antistatic, 

Sulfur

Poor

Can be a potent skin sensitizer. Sulfur also has a high pH, which can encourage the growth of bacteria on skin.

Antioxidant,  Plant Extract,  Sensitizing,  Fragrance, 

Thymus Vulgaris

Average

Solvent,  Miscellaneous, 

Water

Good

Most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration in the formula. Despite claims of skinŠ—Ès need for hydration and claims regarding special types of water, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis. Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin with that of normal or oily skin do not find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them.

Viscosity Control, 

Potassium Chloride

Emollient, 

Rumex Acetosella

Viscosity Control,  Astringent, 

Calcium Chloride

This treatment packs a punch against imperfections, transforming your skin while you sleep. The formula features 10 percent salicylic and lactic acids to help minimize appearance of pores and control excess oil, while other powerful ingredients like sulfur, niacinamide, and glycerin help clarify, soothe, and hydrate. It is formulated Without: - Parabens- Phthalates This product is dermatologist tested, vegan, hypoallergenic, and oil-free.

Allergic ingredients not found