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Ingredient
Cleansing Agent,  Viscosity Control,  Surfactant,  Antistatic, 

Cocamidopropyl Betaine

Good

Gentle surfactant used in skincare products, almost always as a secondary cleansing agent and lather booster. When used alone as the sole cleansing agent, it is too mild to clean adult skin and hair.

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Moisturizer,  Anti, 

Cucumis Sativus

Good

Preservative, 

Ethylparaben

Good

Parabens are a group of controversial preservatives that include butylparaben, isobutylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, and ethylparaben. All of these were at one time the most widely used group of preservatives used in cosmetics. Parabens were so popular because of their gentle, non-sensitizing, and highly effective profile in comparison to other preservatives but also because they were derived naturally from plants, a rare phenomenon for a preservative. Parabens are found in plants in the form of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), a chemical that breaks down to become parabens for a plants own protection. Over the past 10 years parabens have become criticized and condemned for use in cosmetics due to their alleged relation to health concerns affecting women and men. The research about parabens is conflicting and polarizing. Some research indicates they are safe as used in cosmetics and are preferred over other preservatives to keep a formula stable. These studies also showed parabens did not have any effect when compared to natural hormones in the body. However, other research has concluded they are indeed problematic: Some studies determined a 100% concentration of parabens caused skin samples (meaning not intact skin on a person) to break down. However, these studies donŠ—Èt apply to the tiny amount (1% or less) of parabens typically used in cosmetics. In low amounts, parabens were not shown to harm skin; in fact, they offer a benefit due to their ability to thwart the growth of mold, fungi, and harmful pathogens. Other studies casting parabens in a negative light were based on force-feeding them to rats, a practice that is not only cruel but unrelated to what happens when parabens are applied to skin. There are studies indicating absorption of parabens through skin associated with application of skincare products, but those studies did not take into consideration that parabens are still used as food-grade preservatives or found naturally in plants and that could have been the source not the cosmetics. We also looked at studies showing other questionable effects but those were done in vitro meaning in a petri dish or, again, animal studies in species whose biologic makeup does not closely relate to people. We appreciate the concern about parabens and understand if people choose to avoid them. At PaulaŠ—Ès Choice Skincare we choose not to use parabens, but that decision is based on other reasons than the scare tactics rampant on the internet. References for this information: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, May 2017, 320-325 Annual Review of Food Science Technology, February 2017, pages 371-390 Journal of Applied Toxicology, April 2017, ePublication Environmental Science and Technology, April 2017, page 4009-4017 Dermatitis, November-December 2015, pages 254-259 Toxicology Letters, December 2013, pages 295-305 Skin Therapy Letter, July-August 2013, pages 5-7 Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, June 2008, pages 4631-4636 International Journal of Toxicology, April 2008, pages 1-82 http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/paraben-information

Fragrance: Synthetic And Fragrant Plant Extract,  Sensitizing,  Fragrance, 

Fragrance

Poor

One or a blend of volatile and/or fragrant plant oils (or synthetically derived oils) that impart aroma and odor to products. These are often skin sensitizers because they are composed of hundreds of individual chemical components. Fragrance is a leading source of sensitivity to cosmetics.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycerin

Best

Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is a humectant thatŠ—Ès present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured, which is usually the case with modern-day skincare products.Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. ItŠ—Ès one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skinŠ—Ès moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.Some people wonder whether using products with glycerin takes too much water from skin when there isnŠ—Èt enough humidity in the air. This can occur with pure glycerin (100% concentrationŠ—”an amount thatŠ—Ès never used in skincare products). Any humectant (including glycerin) used in pure form can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers when the climate is too arid (low humidity). For this reason, glycerin and humectants are typically used in concentrations of 5% or less and always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. In fact, glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.References for this information:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublicationBritish Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365

Antioxidant,  Plant Extract,  Sensitizing,  Fragrance,  Astringent, 

Grapefruit Peel

Poor

Typically listed as Citrus grandis (grapefruit) peel extract on ingredient lists, the peel from this fruit is loaded with a class of ingredients known as furanocoumarins and coumarins, which are primarily responsible for whatŠ—Ès known as a phototoxic reaction that occurs when skin is exposed to the sun. Low amounts of this ingredients arenŠ—Èt likely to be problematic, but watch out if itŠ—Ès listed toward the beginning to middle of an ingredient list, especially if the product in question has a telltale grapefruit scent.

Coloring Agents/Pigment,  Pigment, 

Iron Oxides

Good

Compounds of iron that are used as coloring agents in some cosmetics. They also are used as a metal polish called jewelersŠ—È rouge, and are well-known in their crude form as rust. Although iron oxides occur naturally, the forms used in cosmetics are synthetic. Iron oxides are closely regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. According to the website CosmeticsInfo.org (which links to the FDAŠ—Ès Code of Federal Regulations for iron oxides), Š—“Synthetic iron oxides are produced in various ways, including thermal decomposition of iron salts, such as ferrous sulfate, to produce reds; precipitation to produce yellows, reds, browns, and blacks; and reduction of organic compounds by iron to produce yellows and blacks.Š—

Fragrance: Synthetic And Fragrant Plant Extract,  Plant Extract,  Sensitizing,  Fragrance,  Astringent, 

Menthol

Poor

Derived from peppermint, menthol can have the same sensitizing effect as peppermint on skin. Despite its documented ability to sensitize skin, menthol is included in a surprisingly large number of products. Unfortunately, the cooling, refreshing sensation menthol causes is direct evidence that your skin is being sensitized, not soothed.

Fragrance: Synthetic And Fragrant Plant Extract,  Sensitizing, 

Menthyl Lactate

Poor

The ester of menthol and lactic acid, this ingredient is used as a cooling or flavoring agent and fragrance in cosmetics. This derivative of menthol is supposed to be less sensitizing than menthol, but thereŠ—Ès no substantiated, pubsliehd research supporting this notion.

Preservative, 

Methylparaben

Good

Parabens are a group of controversial preservatives that include butylparaben, isobutylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, and ethylparaben. All of these were at one time the most widely used group of preservatives used in cosmetics. Parabens were so popular because of their gentle, non-sensitizing, and highly effective profile in comparison to other preservatives but also because they were derived naturally from plants, a rare phenomenon for a preservative. Parabens are found in plants in the form of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), a chemical that breaks down to become parabens for a plants own protection. Over the past 10 years parabens have become criticized and condemned for use in cosmetics due to their alleged relation to health concerns affecting women and men. The research about parabens is conflicting and polarizing. Some research indicates they are safe as used in cosmetics and are preferred over other preservatives to keep a formula stable. These studies also showed parabens did not have any effect when compared to natural hormones in the body. However, other research has concluded they are indeed problematic: Some studies determined a 100% concentration of parabens caused skin samples (meaning not intact skin on a person) to break down. However, these studies donŠ—Èt apply to the tiny amount (1% or less) of parabens typically used in cosmetics. In low amounts, parabens were not shown to harm skin; in fact, they offer a benefit due to their ability to thwart the growth of mold, fungi, and harmful pathogens. Other studies casting parabens in a negative light were based on force-feeding them to rats, a practice that is not only cruel but unrelated to what happens when parabens are applied to skin. There are studies indicating absorption of parabens through skin associated with application of skincare products, but those studies did not take into consideration that parabens are still used as food-grade preservatives or found naturally in plants and that could have been the source not the cosmetics. We also looked at studies showing other questionable effects but those were done in vitro meaning in a petri dish or, again, animal studies in species whose biologic makeup does not closely relate to people. We appreciate the concern about parabens and understand if people choose to avoid them. At PaulaŠ—Ès Choice Skincare we choose not to use parabens, but that decision is based on other reasons than the scare tactics rampant on the internet. References for this information: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, May 2017, 320-325 Annual Review of Food Science Technology, February 2017, pages 371-390 Journal of Applied Toxicology, April 2017, ePublication Environmental Science and Technology, April 2017, page 4009-4017 Dermatitis, November-December 2015, pages 254-259 Toxicology Letters, December 2013, pages 295-305 Skin Therapy Letter, July-August 2013, pages 5-7 Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, June 2008, pages 4631-4636 International Journal of Toxicology, April 2008, pages 1-82 http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/paraben-information

Coloring Agents/Pigment,  Pigment, 

Mica

Good

Earth-derived silicate minerals included in products to give them sparkle and shine as well as varying degrees of opacity. The amount and look of the shine mica provides depends on the color and how finely itŠ—Ès milled for use in liquid, cream, or powder products. It is considered safe for use in cosmetics, including those applied to the eyes and lips.

Preservative, 

Phenoxyethanol

Good

Common cosmetics preservative that's considered one of the least sensitizing for use in formulations. It does not release formaldehyde. Phenoxyethanol is approved worldwide (including in Japan and in the EU) for use in all types of water-based cosmetics, up to a 1% concentration.

Antioxidant,  Skin-Restoring,  Vitamin, 

Retinyl Palmitate

Best

Combination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and the fatty acid palmitic acid. Research has shown it to be an effective antioxidant when applied to skin. You may be surprised to learn that retinyl palmitate is found naturally in our skin, where it works as an antioxidant, particularly in regard to helping protect skin from UV light exposureŠ—”though it does not replace the need for sunscreen. Reports that retinyl palmitate is not a safe ingredient are false. TheyŠ—Ère based on a study from nearly 20 years ago that has never been reproduced or tested under real-life conditions such as how people use sunscreens that contain this ingredient. In addition, to date, there is no scientific evidence that retinyl palmitate is a carcinogen in humans. The safety of retinyl palmitate is supported by several accredited organizations and their opinions are widely available online. If you still have concerns, we encourage you to research the topic further.References for this information: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, February 2016, pages 394-403 Acta Biochimica Polonica, 2015, pages 201-206 Clinical Interventions in Aging, December 2006, pages 327-348 Journal of Investigative Dermatology, November 2003, pages 1163-1167

Antioxidant,  Skin-Soothing,  Vitamin,  Whitening, 

Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate

Best

Stable, water-soluble form of vitamin C that functions as an antioxidant and is potentially effective for brightening an uneven skin tone.ξ

Cleansing Agent,  Sensitizing,  Ph Adjusters, 

Sodium Hydroxide

Average

Also known as lye, sodium hydroxide is a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to establish and hold the pH of a product.

Coloring Agents/Pigment,  Sunscreen Active,  Thickeners/Emulsifier,  Pigment, 

Titanium Dioxide

Best

Inert earth mineral used as a thickening, whitening, lubricating, and sunscreen ingredient in cosmetics. It protects skin from UVA and UVB radiation and is considered to have no risk of skin sensitivity. Because of its gentleness, titanium dioxide is an excellent sunscreen active for use on sensitive, redness-prone skin. ItŠ—Ès also great for use around the eyes, as it is highly unlikely to cause stinging.Titanium dioxide is typically micronized and coated for use in cosmetics products. The micronizing makes this somewhat heavy-feeling ingredient easier to spread on skin, plus a bit more cosmetically elegant. Micronized titanium dioxide also is much more stable and can provide better sun protection than non-micronized titanium dioxide. Micronized titanium dioxide does not penetrate skin so thereŠ—Ès no need to be concerned about it getting into your body. Even when titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used, the molecular size of the substance used to coat the nanoparticles is large enough to prevent them from penetrating beyond the uppermost layers of skin. This means youŠ—Ère getting the sun protection titanium dioxide provides without any risk of it causing harm to skin or your body.The coating process improves application, enhances sun protection, and also prevents the titanium dioxide from interacting with other ingredients in the presence of sunlight, thus enhancing its stability. It not only makes this ingredient much more pleasant to use for sunscreen, but also improves efficacy and eliminates safety concerns. Common examples of ingredients used to coat titanium dioxide are alumina, dimethicone, silica, and trimethoxy capryl silane.Titanium dioxide as used in sunscreens is commonly modified with other ingredients to ensure efficacy and stability. Examples of what are known as surface modifier ingredients used for titanium dioxide include stearic acid, isostearic acid, polyhydroxystearic acid, and dimethicone/methicone copolymer.Some websites and doctors maintain that titanium dioxide is inferior to zinc oxide, another mineral sunscreen whose core characteristics are similar to those of titanium dioxide. The reality is titanium dioxide is a great broad-spectrum SPF ingredient and is widely used in all manner of sun-protection products. What gets confusing for some consumers is trying to decipher research that ranks sunscreen ingredients by a UV spectrum graph. By most standards, broad-spectrum coverage for any sunscreen ingredient is defined as one that surpasses 360 nanometers (abbreviated as Š—“nm,Š—

Antioxidant,  Vitamin,  Moisturizer, 

Tocopheryl Acetate

Best

Solvent,  Miscellaneous, 

Water

Good

Most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration in the formula. Despite claims of skinŠ—Ès need for hydration and claims regarding special types of water, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis. Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin with that of normal or oily skin do not find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them.

Emollient,  Plant Extract, 

Panax Ginseng

Viscosity Control, 

Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose

Viscosity Control, 

Hydroxyethyl Cellulose

Solvent, 

Triethyl Citrate

Moisturizer, 

Mannitol

Preservative, 

Sodium Propylparaben

Bursting Beads, OilFree, Vitamin C & Ginseng, Wakes you up Rinses clean, Won't clog pores, Hypoallergenic

Allergic ingredients not found