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Ingredient
Antioxidant,  Vitamin,  Whitening, 

Ascorbyl Glucoside

Best

Stable form of vitamin C combined with glucose. When properly formulated and absorbed into skin, it breaks down to ascorbic acid (pure vitamin C). It functions as an antioxidant and works well with other replenishing and antioxidant ingredients to preserve key substances skin needs to look smoother, brighter, and younger.

Antioxidant,  Plant Extract,  Skin-Soothing, 

Boerhavia Diffusa

Best

Extract from a flowering plant. Studies on animals have shown that this plant has strong skin-soothing activity. Like all plant extracts, Boerhavia diffusa also has antioxidant ability.

Texture Enhancer,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Butylene Glycol

Good

Commonly-used ingredient that has multiple functions in cosmetics, including as a texture enhancer. It’s similar to propylene glycol, but has a lighter texture.

Antioxidant,  Plant Extract, 

Carnosine

Best

Composed of amino acids, it has skin-soothing and antioxidant properties. There is some research showing it has antiglycation properties.

Uncategorized,  Ph Adjusters, 

Citric Acid

Good

Extract derived from citrus fruits and used primarily in small amounts to adjust the pH of products to prevent them from being too alkaline.

Plant Extract,  Skin-Soothing,  Anti, 

Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate

Best

Antioxidant,  Plant Extract,  Skin-Soothing, 

Epigallocatechin Gallate

Best

One of the active constituents of green tea believed to be responsible for its many health and appearance benefits, both orally and topically. The chief benefit of epigallocatechin-3-gallate is skin-soothing and antioxidant.

Preservative,  Moisturizer,  Miscellaneous, 

Ethylhexylglycerin

Good

A synthetic skin-softening agent also used as a preservative, a carrier, or suspending agent for other preservatives such as phenoxyethanol.

Antioxidant,  Plant Extract,  Skin-Soothing, 

Genistein

Best

Plant component (most often derived from soy) that is a rich source of antioxidants, although it can also be synthetically derived. Research has shown that topical application of genistein has several benefits for skin, including antioxidant and skin-soothing.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycerin

Best

Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is a humectant thatŠ—Ès present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured, which is usually the case with modern-day skincare products.Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. ItŠ—Ès one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skinŠ—Ès moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.Some people wonder whether using products with glycerin takes too much water from skin when there isnŠ—Èt enough humidity in the air. This can occur with pure glycerin (100% concentrationŠ—”an amount thatŠ—Ès never used in skincare products). Any humectant (including glycerin) used in pure form can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers when the climate is too arid (low humidity). For this reason, glycerin and humectants are typically used in concentrations of 5% or less and always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. In fact, glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.References for this information:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublicationBritish Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Skin-Soothing,  Fragrance,  Anti,  Whitening, 

Glycyrrhiza Glabra

Best

Antioxidant,  Skin-Soothing,  Viscosity Control,  Anti, 

Oat Beta-Glucan

Best

Preservative, 

Phenoxyethanol

Good

Common cosmetics preservative that's considered one of the least sensitizing for use in formulations. It does not release formaldehyde. Phenoxyethanol is approved worldwide (including in Japan and in the EU) for use in all types of water-based cosmetics, up to a 1% concentration.

Emollient,  Skin-Replenishing,  Moisturizer, 

Phospholipid

Best

Type of lipid (fat) composed of glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphate. Lecithin is an example of a phospholipid. See lecithin.

Antioxidant,  Skin-Restoring, 

Skin-Restoring Ingredients

Best

Skincare ingredients that nourish skinŠ—Ès surface in a way that helps transform it on many levels to appear noticeably younger, with a renewed feeling of firmness, and a more even-looking complexion. With ongoing use, these ingredients also help improve dull skin tone and rough texture, plus soften the appearance of fine lines and wrinklesŠ—”including deep wrinkles. Well-researched examples of skin-restoring ingredients include retinol, niacinamide, peptides, linoleic and linolenic acids, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (found in green tea), and adenosine. References for this information:

Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer, 

Sodium Hyaluronate

Best

Salt form of skin-replenishing ingredient hyaluronic acid; considered more effective for skin than pure hyaluronic acid due to its greater compatibility. References for this information:

Cleansing Agent,  Sensitizing,  Ph Adjusters, 

Sodium Hydroxide

Average

Also known as lye, sodium hydroxide is a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to establish and hold the pH of a product.

Antioxidant,  Skin-Soothing, 

Ubiquinone

Best

Also known as coenzyme Q10, it is a vitamin-like, fat-soluble substance naturally present in the body. Applied to skin, it can have antioxidant benefits due to its energizing effect on factors in skin that tend to slow down with age and cumulative sun exposure.ξ

Solvent,  Miscellaneous, 

Water

Good

Most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration in the formula. Despite claims of skinŠ—Ès need for hydration and claims regarding special types of water, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis. Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin with that of normal or oily skin do not find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them.

Moisturizer, 

N-Acetyl Glucosamine

Moisturizer,  Antistatic, 

D-Panthenol

Viscosity Control, 

Natural Xanthan Gum

This concentrated 10% niacinamide serum booster dramatically improves uneven skin tone and refines the appearance of pore size, skin texture and fine lines.
Promotes a brighter, younger-looking appearance
Niacinamide (vitamin B3) visibly minimizes pore size
Sheer, ultra-light liquid formula
Use alone or add to your moisturizer or serum
SKIN TYPES: All Skin Types
CONCERNS: Anti-Aging, Enlarged Pores

Allergic ingredients not found