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Ingredient
Skin-Restoring,  Skin-Soothing, 

Adenosine Triphosphate

Best

Organic compound from adenosine, which is formed by the hydrolysis of yeast nucleic acids.

Uncategorized, 

Aminomethyl Propanol

Good

Synthetic ingredient used in cosmetics as a pH adjuster. It is considered safe as currently used in amounts of 2% or less in cosmetic formulas.

Fragrance: Synthetic And Fragrant Plant Extract,  Plant Extract, 

Anethum Graveolens

Average

Preservative,  Fragrance,  Solvent, 

Benzyl Alcohol

Good

Organic alcohol that occurs naturally in some fruits (apricots, cranberries) and teas. Its chief function in cosmetics is as a preservative, and itŠ—Ès among the least sensitizing preservatives in use.

Texture Enhancer,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Butylene Glycol

Good

Commonly-used ingredient that has multiple functions in cosmetics, including as a texture enhancer. It’s similar to propylene glycol, but has a lighter texture.

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Astringent,  Solvent, 

Camellia Oleifera

Best

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Sunscreen Active,  Moisturizer,  Fragrance,  Astringent, 

Camellia Sinensis

Best

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Texture Enhancer,  Fragrance, 

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride

Best

Derived from coconut oil and glycerin, itŠ—Ès considered an excellent emollient and skin-replenishing ingredient. ItŠ—Ès included in cosmetics due to its mix of fatty acids that skin can use to replenish its surface and resist moisture loss. Caprylic/capric triglyceride can also function as a thickener, but its chief job is to moisturize and replenish skin. This ingredientŠ—Ès value for skin is made greater by the fact that itŠ—Ès considered gentle.Reference for this information:Food and Chemical Toxicology, January 2000, issue 1, pages 79-98

Plant Extract,  Skin-Replenishing, 

Ceramide Ng

Best

Antioxidant,  Plant Extract,  Fragrance,  Anti, 

Chamomilla Recutita

Best

Antioxidant,  Plant Extract,  Astringent,  Anti, 

Elderberry

Good

Also known as black elderberry or Sambucus nigra,ξ this plant has potent antioxidant properties due to the flavonoid compounds naturally present. Elderberry also has skin-soothing effects.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycerin

Best

Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is a humectant thatŠ—Ès present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured, which is usually the case with modern-day skincare products.Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. ItŠ—Ès one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skinŠ—Ès moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.Some people wonder whether using products with glycerin takes too much water from skin when there isnŠ—Èt enough humidity in the air. This can occur with pure glycerin (100% concentrationŠ—”an amount thatŠ—Ès never used in skincare products). Any humectant (including glycerin) used in pure form can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers when the climate is too arid (low humidity). For this reason, glycerin and humectants are typically used in concentrations of 5% or less and always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. In fact, glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.References for this information:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublicationBritish Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365

Exfoliant,  Whitening, 

Glycolic Acid

Best

A type of alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that, like other ingredients in the category, can act as a water-binding agent and, when properly formulated, as an exfoliant. In its capacity as an exfoliant, it can help shed dead skin to renew skinŠ—Ès surface, visibly softening the signs of aging, particularly from sun damage. Glycolic acid is one of the most effective and well-researched forms of AHA.

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Skin-Soothing,  Fragrance,  Anti,  Whitening, 

Glycyrrhiza Glabra

Best

Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Skin-Restoring, 

Hydrogenated Lecithin

Best

Hydrogenated form of the skin-restoring ingredient lecithin. It may be derived from animals or plants (egg yolk is a source) or manufactured synthetically.

Exfoliant,  Astringent,  Whitening, 

Lactic Acid

Best

Alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) extracted from milk, although most forms used in cosmetics are synthetic because that form is easier to formulate with and stabilize.

Antioxidant,  Skin-Softening,  Astringent, 

Lycium Barbarum Fruit

Good

The extract of the fruit commonly known as goji, goji berry, or wolfberry. This fruit extract is an antioxidant and also works as a skin-softening agent.

Antioxidant,  Exfoliant, 

Malic Acid

Good

An AHA ingredient derived from unripe fruit that also occurs naturally in the human body. It is used in cosmetics to adjust a product's pH. In foods, mailic acid is sometimes added to impart a sour or tart flavor.

Skin-Restoring, 

Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7

Best

Synthetic peptide that's part of Matrixyl 3000, which also contains palmitoyl oligopeptide, and is believed to work as a skin-restoring ingredient with anti-aging benefits.

Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer, 

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1

Best

One of a number of synthetic peptides, which are chained amino acids that can have restorative benefits for skin. For more on the benefits of peptides, see our article Peptides for Skin.

Preservative, 

Phenoxyethanol

Good

Common cosmetics preservative that's considered one of the least sensitizing for use in formulations. It does not release formaldehyde. Phenoxyethanol is approved worldwide (including in Japan and in the EU) for use in all types of water-based cosmetics, up to a 1% concentration.

Texture Enhancer,  Antistatic, 

Polyquaternium-10

Good

Cleansing Agent,  Emulsifier,  Surfactant, 

Polysorbate 20

Good

Anti-Acne,  Exfoliant,  Skin-Soothing,  Whitening, 

Salicylic Acid

Best

Also called beta hydroxy acid (BHA), this multifunctional ingredient addresses many of the systemic causes of acne. Its primary benefit is as an exfoliant, helping shed dead skin in a way similar to how skin acts when we are younger. Because it has the ability to penetrate into the pore lining and exfoliate inside the pore as well as on the surface of skin, it is especially effective for reducing breakouts, including blackheads and whiteheads.In addition to these benefits, salicylic acid also has soothing properties to calm aggravated skin, can help minimize the appearance of an uneven skin tone, and has hydrating abilities that can result in smoother skin.References for this information:Clinical, Cosmetic, and Investigational Dermatology,ξAugust 2015, pages 455-461Clinical, Cosmetic, and Investigational Dermatology, November 2010, pages 135-142Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, September 2008, pages 170-176Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, April 2007, pages 651-663International Journal of Cosmetic Science, February 2000, pages 21-52Seminars in Dermatology, December 1990, pages 305-308.

Cleansing Agent,  Sensitizing,  Ph Adjusters, 

Sodium Hydroxide

Average

Also known as lye, sodium hydroxide is a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to establish and hold the pH of a product.

Exfoliant,  Whitening, 

Tartaric Acid

Good

A naturally-occurring crystalline organic acid found in many plants, including grapes and tamarinds. It is one of the chief acids in wine. Tartaric acid has antioxidant properties and is an alpha hydroxy acid, though it is not as well-researched when it comes to skin benefits as glycolic and lactic acids. References for this information: Human Metabolome Database: http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB00956

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Moisturizer, 

Vitis Vinifera

Best

Latin name for the vines that produce wine grapes. More commonly known as grape seed oil or grape seed extract.

Solvent,  Miscellaneous, 

Water

Good

Most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration in the formula. Despite claims of skinŠ—Ès need for hydration and claims regarding special types of water, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis. Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin with that of normal or oily skin do not find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them.

Ph Adjusters, 

Sodium Bicarbonate

A synthetic inorganic salt more commonly known as baking soda. It has many functions in cosmetics, including pH adjuster, buffering agent, and abrasive, such as in face or body scrubs. When used in small amounts to adjust and maintain the pH of cosmetic products, baking soda is not a problem for skin; however, when used among the main ingredient in scrub products, itŠ—Ès simply too abrasive and an ingredient we donŠ—Èt recommend. The rating for this ingredient pertains to its benefit as a pH adjuster and buffering agent.References for this information: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, May 2010, pages 885-886 https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/sodium_bicarbonate

Plant Extract,  Fragrance,  Astringent, 

Punica Granatum Glycerides

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Viscosity Control,  Anti,  Solvent, 

Avena Sativa Peptide

Viscosity Control, 

Potassium Carbomer

Viscosity Control, 

Natural Xanthan Gum

Anti, 

A-Bisabolol

This super-concentrated exfoliating cocktail dramatically smooths away visible sun damage and other advanced signs of aging, revealing more radiant, visibly younger skin with just one use.
Four alpha-hydroxy acids reveal firmer looking skin
Beta-hydroxy acid clears & visibly minimizes pores
Lightweight, milky liquid
Use up to twice daily after cleansing & toning skin
SKIN TYPES: Dry/Very Dry Skin
CONCERNS: Anti-Aging, Wrinkles

Allergic ingredients not found