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Ingredient
Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Texture Enhancer,  Viscosity Control, 

Agar

Good

Cleansing Agent,  Emulsifier,  Texture Enhancer, 

Behenic Acid

Good

Fatty acid used as a thickening agent and surfactant.

Preservative,  Fragrance,  Solvent, 

Benzyl Alcohol

Good

Organic alcohol that occurs naturally in some fruits (apricots, cranberries) and teas. Its chief function in cosmetics is as a preservative, and itŠ—Ès among the least sensitizing preservatives in use.

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Skin-Replenishing,  Moisturizer, 

Butyrospermum Parkii

Best

Emulsifier,  Thickeners/Emulsifier,  Surfactant, 

Candelilla/Jojoba/Rice Bran Polyglyceryl-3 Esters

Best

A natural mixture of polyglycerin-3, candelilla wax, jojoba seed wax, and rice bran wax that functions as a stabilizer and emulsifier in cosmetics. It is chemically known as a transester because the ingredient contains three different components that are chemically combined to create a new ingredient.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring, 

Caprooyl Phytosphingosine

Best

A mixture of fatty acids caproic acid and phytosphingosine, this ingredient works to replenish and restore a healthier-looking skin surface, creating a smooth, hydrated feel. As a component of naturally-occurring ceramides, caprooyl phytosphingosine is brilliant for stopping moisture loss from skinŠ—Ès uppermost layers.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring, 

Caprooyl Sphingosine

Best

A mixture of fatty acids caproic acid and sphingosine, this ingredient works to replenish and restore a healthier-looking skin surface, creating a smooth, hydrated feel. As a component of naturally-occurring ceramides, caprooyl sphingosine is brilliant for stopping moisture loss from skinŠ—Ès uppermost layers.

Emollient,  Film-Forming/Holding Agent,  Texture Enhancer, 

Capryloyl Glycerin/Sebacic Acid Copolymer

Good

A naturally-derived (coconut and castor oil) or synthetic ingredient that functions as a polymer and film-forming agent as well as a replacement for silicones in cosmetic formulas.ξ

Skin-Replenishing,  Moisturizer, 

Ceramide Ap

Best

Skin-Replenishing, 

Ceramide Eop

Best

Skin-Replenishing, 

Ceramide Eos

Best

Skin-Replenishing,  Moisturizer,  Fragrance, 

Ceramide Np

Best

One of several types of ceramides, which are naturally occurring, long chains of lipids (fats) that are major components of skinŠ—Ès outer layers. Research shows moisturizers containing ceramide NP can improve the look and feel of dry skin.

Skin-Replenishing, 

Ceramide Ns

Best

Emulsifier,  Texture Enhancer,  Surfactant, 

Ceteareth-25

Good

A fatty alcohol that functions as an emulsifier and surfactant in cosmetics. It may be plant- or animal-derived or made synthetically (PaulaŠ—Ès Choice Skincare uses the synthetic and plant-derived types).ξ

Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Texture Enhancer,  Viscosity Control,  Surfactant, 

Cetearyl Alcohol

Good

Fatty alcohol that is a mixture of gentle cetyl and stearyl alcohols. ItŠ—Ès used as an emollient, texture enhancer, foam stabilizer, and carrying agent for other ingredients. Can be derived naturally, as in coconut fatty alcohol, or made synthetically. It is almost always combined with similar-feeling ingredients to create a productŠ—Ès texture and influence its slip when applied to skin.Cosmetic products labeled "alcohol free" are allowed to contain cetearyl alcohol, whose effects are quite different from skin-aggravating forms of alcohol. We repeat: fatty alcohols like cetearyl alcohol do not pose a risk of sensitizing skin.Reference for this information:FDA Labeling Claims, 2014http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/cetyl-alcohol

Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Skin-Replenishing,  Viscosity Control, 

Cholesterol

Best

Applied topically, cholesterol in cosmetics can help maintain the skinŠ—Ès healthy feel and appearance. It is also a stabilizer, emollient, and water-binding agent.

Uncategorized,  Ph Adjusters, 

Citric Acid

Good

Extract derived from citrus fruits and used primarily in small amounts to adjust the pH of products to prevent them from being too alkaline.

Antioxidant,  Vitamin, 

D-Alpha-Tocopherol

Best

Antioxidant that's considered the most effective form of vitamin E.

Texture Enhancer, 

Diheptyl Succinate

Best

Diheptyl succinate is a lightweight, emollient texture enhancer that is sometimes used as a replacement for silicones in cosmetic products.ξ

Preservative,  Moisturizer,  Miscellaneous, 

Ethylhexylglycerin

Good

A synthetic skin-softening agent also used as a preservative, a carrier, or suspending agent for other preservatives such as phenoxyethanol.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycerin

Best

Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is a humectant thatŠ—Ès present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured, which is usually the case with modern-day skincare products.Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. ItŠ—Ès one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skinŠ—Ès moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.Some people wonder whether using products with glycerin takes too much water from skin when there isnŠ—Èt enough humidity in the air. This can occur with pure glycerin (100% concentrationŠ—”an amount thatŠ—Ès never used in skincare products). Any humectant (including glycerin) used in pure form can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers when the climate is too arid (low humidity). For this reason, glycerin and humectants are typically used in concentrations of 5% or less and always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. In fact, glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.References for this information:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublicationBritish Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365

Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Texture Enhancer, 

Glyceryl Behenate

Best

A mixture of esters of glycerin, along with behenic and eicosadioic acids, its works as a thickener and stabilizing agent in makeup and skincare products. The independent cosmetic ingredient review has found it is safe as used in cosmetics. References for this information: https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/monoglyceryl%20monoesters.pdf Acta Pharmaceutica, March 2015, pages 1-13 Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, February 2011, pages 139-148

Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Skin-Restoring, 

Hydrogenated Lecithin

Best

Hydrogenated form of the skin-restoring ingredient lecithin. It may be derived from animals or plants (egg yolk is a source) or manufactured synthetically.

Texture Enhancer,  Thickeners/Emulsifier,  Viscosity Control,  Surfactant, 

Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyl Dimethyl Taurate Copolymer

Good

Synthetic polymer that functions as a stabilizer, texture enhancer, and opacifying agent. The independent Cosmetic Ingredient Review has deemed this ingredient safe as used in cosmetics.

Cleansing Agent,  Emollient,  Texture Enhancer,  Thickeners/Emulsifier,  Solvent, 

Isohexadecane

Good

Synthetic, dry-finish ingredient with a powder-like finish. Used as a cleansing agent and texture enhancer in cosmetics, particularly those for oily skin. The size of isohexadecane keeps it from penetrating too far into the skin, so it can be a good ingredient to keep other ingredients, like certain antioxidants, on skinŠ—Ès surface.

Emollient,  Texture Enhancer, 

Lauryl Laurate

Best

An ester of lauryl alcohol and lauric acid, lauryl laurate is an emollient ingredient that can help bioactive ingredients better integrate with skinŠ—Ès surface. It is considered safe as used in cosmetics.

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Fragrance, 

Linum Usitatissimum

Best

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Skin-Replenishing,  Fragrance,  Solvent, 

Olea Europaea Oil Unsaponifiables

Best

An unsaponifiable oil is the portion of a plant oil that is not broken down when the oil's fatty acids are refined for use in cosmetic products.

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Skin-Soothing, 

Passiflora Edulis Seed Oil

Best

The layperson term for this Brazilian-based plant oil is passion fruit. Also known as maracuja oil, itŠ—Ès one of many good plant oils that can improve the look and feel of dry skin. Passion fruit oil has documented skin-soothing properties. ξItŠ—Ès also a source of lycopene, and antioxidant common to tomatoes.ξ

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract, 

Prunus Domestica Seed Oil

Best

Non-fragrant plant oil, more commonly known as plum (and, when dried, prune) that is a rich source of several potent antioxidants.The oil form of this plant ingredient is likely more potent in terms of its antioxidant potential than isolated extracts. As such, this plant oil packs extra benefits for dry skin.References for this information:Biofactors, Volume 21, 2004, pages 309Š—–313

Emollient,  Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer, 

Salvia Hispanica (Chia) Seed Oil

Best

Non-fragrant plant oil whose seeds are a rich source of fatty acids, including omega-3 (as alpha-linoleic acid) plus unsaturated fatty acids linolenic and palmitic acids.ξ

Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer, 

Sodium Hyaluronate

Best

Salt form of skin-replenishing ingredient hyaluronic acid; considered more effective for skin than pure hyaluronic acid due to its greater compatibility. References for this information:

Miscellaneous, 

Sodium Phytate

Good

The salt form of the corn-derived plant component phytic acid, modified to become a synthetic ingredient and used as a chelating agent in cosmetics.

Emulsifier,  Texture Enhancer, 

Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate

Good

A synthetic or animal-derived ingredient (PaulaŠ—Ès Choice Skincare uses the former) that stabilizes the water phase of moisturizers and other skincare products that contain hydrating ingredients. Sodium stearoyl lactylate works via its interaction with proteins and starches, where it can also help modify a productŠ—Ès texture.

Antioxidant,  Vitamin, 

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate

Best

Stable form of vitamin C that is considered an analogue of L-ascorbic acid. Unlike pure vitamin C (ascorbic acid), tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate is lipid (fat) soluble.Some researchers believe this form of vitamin C has a greater affinity for skin because its fatty acid component helps aid penetration. It pairs well with other forms of vitamin C and retinol for enhanced effectiveness.References for this information:Clinics in Plastic Surgery, July 2016, page 601Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Supplement, May 2014, pages AB26Dermatologic Surgery, March 2002, pages 231-236

Solvent,  Miscellaneous, 

Water

Good

Most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration in the formula. Despite claims of skinŠ—Ès need for hydration and claims regarding special types of water, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis. Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin with that of normal or oily skin do not find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them.

Emulsifier,  Viscosity Control,  Solvent, 

Glyceryl Stearate & PEG-100 Stearate

Emulsifier,  Viscosity Control,  Surfactant, 

Cetyl Stearyl Alcohol

Moisturizer, 

Glycosyl Trehalose

Good

Trehalose is a sugar found in plants, fungi and invertebrate animals, and used in cosmetics and personal care products as a flavoring agent and moisturizer.

Viscosity Control, 

Natural Xanthan Gum

Superfood for your skin! Omega fatty acids in this serum strengthen skin’s surface with the essential nutrients needed for healthy, hydrated, visibly stronger skin.
Fortifies skin against environmental damage
Lightweight formula nourishes skin’s moisture barrier
Use twice daily after cleansing, toning & exfoliating
SKIN TYPES: All Skin Types
CONCERNS: Anti-Aging, Wrinkles

Allergic ingredients not found