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Ingredient
Silicone,  Texture Enhancer, 

BIS-Phenylpropyl Dimethicone

Good

A synthetic, colorless, silicone-based polymer that functions as an emollient, texture enhancer, and conditioning agent. It is used in products for skin and for hair.

Texture Enhancer,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Butylene Glycol

Good

Commonly-used ingredient that has multiple functions in cosmetics, including as a texture enhancer. It’s similar to propylene glycol, but has a lighter texture.

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Astringent,  Solvent, 

Camellia Oleifera

Best

Emollient,  Texture Enhancer, 

Cetyl Hydroxyethylcellulose

Good

A mixture of cetyl alcohol and hydroxyethylcellulose. It functions as thickener and stabilizing agent.

Emollient,  Silicone, 

Dimethicone

Good

A type of silicone, dimethicone is one of the most frequently used emollient ingredients in moisturizers due to its gentleness and effectiveness. Dimethicone is considered a synthetic ingredient, even though itŠ—Ès derived from natural silicon.

Silicone,  Texture Enhancer,  Viscosity Control, 

Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer

Good

Plant Extract,  Skin-Soothing,  Anti, 

Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate

Best

Preservative,  Moisturizer,  Miscellaneous, 

Ethylhexylglycerin

Good

A synthetic skin-softening agent also used as a preservative, a carrier, or suspending agent for other preservatives such as phenoxyethanol.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycerin

Best

Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is a humectant thatŠ—Ès present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured, which is usually the case with modern-day skincare products.Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. ItŠ—Ès one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skinŠ—Ès moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.Some people wonder whether using products with glycerin takes too much water from skin when there isnŠ—Èt enough humidity in the air. This can occur with pure glycerin (100% concentrationŠ—”an amount thatŠ—Ès never used in skincare products). Any humectant (including glycerin) used in pure form can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers when the climate is too arid (low humidity). For this reason, glycerin and humectants are typically used in concentrations of 5% or less and always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. In fact, glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.References for this information:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublicationBritish Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365

Cleansing Agent,  Emollient,  Texture Enhancer,  Thickeners/Emulsifier,  Solvent, 

Isohexadecane

Good

Synthetic, dry-finish ingredient with a powder-like finish. Used as a cleansing agent and texture enhancer in cosmetics, particularly those for oily skin. The size of isohexadecane keeps it from penetrating too far into the skin, so it can be a good ingredient to keep other ingredients, like certain antioxidants, on skinŠ—Ès surface.

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Thickeners/Emulsifier, 

Laminaria Sacharrina

Good

Antioxidant,  Skin-Restoring,  Skin-Soothing,  Vitamin, 

Niacinamide

Best

Also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide is a very effective skin-restoring ingredient that offers multiple benefits for aging skin. Among these benefits is the ability to visibly improve the appearance of enlarged pores, uneven skin tone, fine lines, dullness, and a weakened skin surface. Niacinamide can also mitigate the damage environmental attack can cause, and is stable in the presence of heat and light.What about using vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and niacinamide in the same product or applied at the same time in separate products?ξYou might have read or heard that niacinamide and vitamin C shouldnŠ—Èt be used at the same time, whether found together in the same product or applied separately one after the other. Rest assured, this combination is fine and is in fact quite beneficial!ξThe research this misconception is based on was conducted in the 1960s; the forms of niacinamide and vitamin C used in this study were not stabilizedŠ—”although niacinamide itself is very stable. The base of the formula used in this study was also far different than todayŠ—Ès sophisticated skincare formulas. ξToday, cosmetic chemists know how to combine niacinamide and vitamin C in the ideal base formulas that enhance their compatibility.ξThe other common concern weŠ—Ève seen about combining these two ingredients has to do with the pH range. The concern is that the acidic environment ascorbic acid needs to be most effective will cause niacinamide will convert to nicotinic acid, a form that can be sensitizing, possibly inducing redness. Good news: This conversion process would only happen under conditions of the formula being exposed to very high heat for a long period of time. This would not apply to layering skincare products or to heat conditions that occur during manufacturing, transport, and storage of cosmetic products that contain niacinamide and ascorbic acid.

Preservative, 

Phenoxyethanol

Good

Common cosmetics preservative that's considered one of the least sensitizing for use in formulations. It does not release formaldehyde. Phenoxyethanol is approved worldwide (including in Japan and in the EU) for use in all types of water-based cosmetics, up to a 1% concentration.

Emollient,  Skin-Replenishing,  Moisturizer, 

Phospholipid

Best

Type of lipid (fat) composed of glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphate. Lecithin is an example of a phospholipid. See lecithin.

Cleansing Agent,  Emulsifier,  Surfactant, 

Polysorbate 80

Good

Film-Forming/Holding Agent,  Viscosity Control, 

Sodium Carbomer

Good

A blend of sodium (salt) and carbomer that functions as a stabilizer and film-forming agent.

Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer, 

Sodium Hyaluronate

Best

Salt form of skin-replenishing ingredient hyaluronic acid; considered more effective for skin than pure hyaluronic acid due to its greater compatibility. References for this information:

Antioxidant, 

Superoxide Dismutase

Best

Enzyme considered a potent antioxidant in humans.

Antioxidant,  Vitamin, 

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate

Best

Stable form of vitamin C that is considered an analogue of L-ascorbic acid. Unlike pure vitamin C (ascorbic acid), tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate is lipid (fat) soluble.Some researchers believe this form of vitamin C has a greater affinity for skin because its fatty acid component helps aid penetration. It pairs well with other forms of vitamin C and retinol for enhanced effectiveness.References for this information:Clinics in Plastic Surgery, July 2016, page 601Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Supplement, May 2014, pages AB26Dermatologic Surgery, March 2002, pages 231-236

Antioxidant,  Vitamin,  Moisturizer, 

Tocopheryl Acetate

Best

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Skin-Softening,  Viscosity Control, 

Triticum Vulgare Oil

Good

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Moisturizer, 

Vitis Vinifera

Best

Latin name for the vines that produce wine grapes. More commonly known as grape seed oil or grape seed extract.

Solvent,  Miscellaneous, 

Water

Good

Most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration in the formula. Despite claims of skinŠ—Ès need for hydration and claims regarding special types of water, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis. Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin with that of normal or oily skin do not find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them.

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Viscosity Control,  Anti,  Solvent, 

Avena Sativa Peptide

Moisturizer,  Antistatic, 

D-Panthenol

A moisturizer that provides essential hydration, helps minimize the appearance of pores, and provides antioxidants to help defend against environmental assault.
Refreshes and hydrates skin
Lightweight gel formula
Use as the last step in your PM skincare routine
SKIN TYPES: Combination Skin
CONCERNS: Enlarged Pores

Allergic ingredients not found