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Ingredient
Preservative, 

Chlorphenesin

Good

Type of alcohol used as a preservative in cosmetics.

Antioxidant,  Vitamin, 

D-Alpha-Tocopherol

Best

Antioxidant that's considered the most effective form of vitamin E.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycerin

Best

Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is a humectant thatŠ—Ès present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured, which is usually the case with modern-day skincare products.Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. ItŠ—Ès one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skinŠ—Ès moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.Some people wonder whether using products with glycerin takes too much water from skin when there isnŠ—Èt enough humidity in the air. This can occur with pure glycerin (100% concentrationŠ—”an amount thatŠ—Ès never used in skincare products). Any humectant (including glycerin) used in pure form can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers when the climate is too arid (low humidity). For this reason, glycerin and humectants are typically used in concentrations of 5% or less and always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. In fact, glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.References for this information:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublicationBritish Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365

Antioxidant,  Vitamin,  Whitening, 

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate

Best

Form of vitamin C that is considered stable and is an effective antioxidant for skin. This form of vitamin C is also known to increase skinŠ—Ès hydration levels as well as being effective for calming factors in skin that can lead to excess oil and signs of sensitization.Like most forms of vitamin C, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (in amounts of 5% or greater) has been shown to improve the look of an uneven skin tone.References for this information:Annals of Dermatology, August 2015, pages 376-382Indian Dermatology Online Journal, 2013, issue 2, pages 143-146Skin Research and Technology, 2008, issue 3, pages 376-380International Journal of Cosmetic Science, June 2000, pages 169-179

Preservative, 

Phenoxyethanol

Good

Common cosmetics preservative that's considered one of the least sensitizing for use in formulations. It does not release formaldehyde. Phenoxyethanol is approved worldwide (including in Japan and in the EU) for use in all types of water-based cosmetics, up to a 1% concentration.

Scrub Agent,  Viscosity Control, 

Sodium Chloride

Good

More popularly known as common table salt. Used primarily as a binding agent in skincare products and occasionally as an abrasive in scrub products.ξ

Solvent,  Miscellaneous, 

Water

Good

Most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration in the formula. Despite claims of skinŠ—Ès need for hydration and claims regarding special types of water, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis. Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin with that of normal or oily skin do not find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them.

Emollient, 

Coco-Caprylate/Caprate

Emollient, 

Isodecyl Neopentanoate

Emollient,  Moisturizer, 

Plukenetia Volubilis

Solvent, 

Maris Aqua

Antioxidant, 

Terminalia Ferdinandiana

Emollient,  Solvent, 

Coconut Alkanes

Emollient, 

Hexamethyldisiloxane

A Brightening Hydrator with Stabilized Vitamin C Derivative

Directions:
Apply a small amount of this cream formula to face AM and PM, after application of water-based serums.

Allergic ingredients not found