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Ingredient
Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Moisturizer,  Antistatic, 

Aspartic Acid

Good

Emollient,  Plant Extract,  Texture Enhancer,  Fragrance, 

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride

Best

Derived from coconut oil and glycerin, itŠ—Ès considered an excellent emollient and skin-replenishing ingredient. ItŠ—Ès included in cosmetics due to its mix of fatty acids that skin can use to replenish its surface and resist moisture loss. Caprylic/capric triglyceride can also function as a thickener, but its chief job is to moisturize and replenish skin. This ingredientŠ—Ès value for skin is made greater by the fact that itŠ—Ès considered gentle.Reference for this information:Food and Chemical Toxicology, January 2000, issue 1, pages 79-98

Preservative, 

Chlorphenesin

Good

Type of alcohol used as a preservative in cosmetics.

Uncategorized,  Ph Adjusters, 

Citric Acid

Good

Extract derived from citrus fruits and used primarily in small amounts to adjust the pH of products to prevent them from being too alkaline.

Antioxidant,  Vitamin, 

D-Alpha-Tocopherol

Best

Antioxidant that's considered the most effective form of vitamin E.

Skin-Replenishing,  Moisturizer, 

Fructose

Good

Often called fruit sugar, fructose is a type of sugar composed of glucose. It has water-binding properties for skin.

Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycerin

Best

Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is a humectant thatŠ—Ès present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. It can be derived from natural substances by hydrolysis of fats and by fermentation of sugars; it also can be synthetically manufactured, which is usually the case with modern-day skincare products.Glycerin is a skin-replenishing and restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. ItŠ—Ès one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skinŠ—Ès moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.Some people wonder whether using products with glycerin takes too much water from skin when there isnŠ—Èt enough humidity in the air. This can occur with pure glycerin (100% concentrationŠ—”an amount thatŠ—Ès never used in skincare products). Any humectant (including glycerin) used in pure form can increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin into the surface layers when the climate is too arid (low humidity). For this reason, glycerin and humectants are typically used in concentrations of 5% or less and always combined with other ingredients to soften skin. In fact, glycerin combined with other emollients and/or oils is a fundamental cornerstone of most moisturizers.References for this information:International Journal of Cosmetic Science, August 2016, ePublicationBritish Journal of Dermatology, July 2008, pages 23-34Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, June 2007, pages 75-82Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2003, pages 7,360-7,365

Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Plant Extract,  Moisturizer,  Solvent, 

Glycine Soja Seed

Best

Cleansing Agent,  Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Texture Enhancer, 

Oleic Acid

Good

Fatty acid used as a cleansing agent and texture enhancer.

Cleansing Agent,  Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Skin-Replenishing, 

Palmitic Acid

Good

Fatty acid found naturally in skin and used as the basis for many palmitate ingredients, such as isopropyl palmitate. Palmitic acid has many functions in cosmetics, from detergent cleansing agent to emollient. In a cleanser, it has the potential to be drying depending on what itŠ—Ès combined with and the cleanserŠ—Ès pH level. In moisturizers, palmitic acid is a very good emollient.

Cleansing Agent,  Emollient,  Moisturizer, 

PEG-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate

Good

Texture Enhancer,  Moisturizer, 

Pentylene Glycol

Good

A synthetic skin-replenishing agent and solvent.

Preservative, 

Phenoxyethanol

Good

Common cosmetics preservative that's considered one of the least sensitizing for use in formulations. It does not release formaldehyde. Phenoxyethanol is approved worldwide (including in Japan and in the EU) for use in all types of water-based cosmetics, up to a 1% concentration.

Cleansing Agent,  Emulsifier,  Surfactant, 

Polysorbate 60

Good

Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Moisturizer,  Antistatic, 

Serine

Good

Scrub Agent,  Viscosity Control, 

Sodium Chloride

Good

More popularly known as common table salt. Used primarily as a binding agent in skincare products and occasionally as an abrasive in scrub products.ξ

Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Skin-Restoring,  Moisturizer, 

Sodium Hyaluronate

Best

Salt form of skin-replenishing ingredient hyaluronic acid; considered more effective for skin than pure hyaluronic acid due to its greater compatibility. References for this information:

Cleansing Agent,  Sensitizing,  Ph Adjusters, 

Sodium Hydroxide

Average

Also known as lye, sodium hydroxide is a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to establish and hold the pH of a product.

Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Antistatic, 

Threonine

Good

Antioxidant,  Skin-Replenishing,  Antistatic, 

Valine

Good

Solvent,  Miscellaneous, 

Water

Good

Most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration in the formula. Despite claims of skinŠ—Ès need for hydration and claims regarding special types of water, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis. Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin with that of normal or oily skin do not find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them.

Moisturizer,  Miscellaneous, 

Zinc Pca

Best

A synthetic skin-conditioning ingredient derived from zinc. Research has shown it has anti-aging benefits due to its ability to thwart destructive enzymes in skin that can damage its surface and lead to an aged, wrinkled appearance.

Emulsifier,  Surfactant,  Solvent, 

Isoceteth-20

Emollient,  Viscosity Control,  Solvent, 

Triolein

Emulsifier,  Viscosity Control,  Surfactant, 

Cetyl Stearyl Alcohol

Solvent, 

Maris Aqua

Viscosity Control, 

Potassium Carbomer

Emulsifier,  Viscosity Control, 

Palm Stearic Acid

Antioxidant,  Emollient,  Emulsifier,  Moisturizer, 

Soy Lecithin

Moisturizer, 

Glycosyl Trehalose

Good

Trehalose is a sugar found in plants, fungi and invertebrate animals, and used in cosmetics and personal care products as a flavoring agent and moisturizer.

Viscosity Control,  Solvent, 

1,3-Propanediol

Moisturizer, 

Maltose

Surface Hydration Formula

Allergic ingredients not found